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Providence Township was home to the Ottawa tribe of Indians prior to modern settlement. Peter Menard, or as more generally known, Peter Minor, and family were the only permanent white settlers in the territory. The area, which is now Providence Township, was originally part of Wood County. Lucas County was formed in 1835 from portions of Wood and Sandusky Counties. Providence Township was organized and became a part of Lucas County in 1836. The first Township election was held at the house of Peter Minor, July 30, 1836.
In 1835, a plat of 80 lots and five streets were laid out by Peter Minor, North of the Maumee River canal lock and given the name of Providence. The location on the North side of the Maumee River at the foot of the rapids was considered very favorable and stores, hotels and warehouses were completed rapidly to meet the demands of new settlers. The construction of the Miami and Erie and Wabash Canals spurred growth, moving travelers, traders and settlers West, along with transporting furs and timber. The rapid onset on railroads quickly eliminated the importance of the entire canal network, an extensive fire and an outbreak of Cholera throughout the Village, forced settlers to move further into the Township, away from the canal.
The unincorporated area of Neapolis in the Northwestern portion of the Township was platted in 1872, the same year as the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway, which ran through Neapolis in a Northeasterly direction through the Township. The Railway has since abandoned and is now a bike trail. The small town consists mainly of homes, but there is a post office and several businesses that call Neapolis home.
The first Public School House in Providence Township was erected in 1828. Prior to the establishment of this School, traveling pedagogues visited this locality during the winter months and gave private instruction at the houses of their patrons. Additional schools were constructed as the Township population grew, however, only the first log school house has been preserved to this day.
Providence Township is served by six post offices. The only post office located in the Township is still located in Neapolis with a Zip Code of 43547 and serves the small area of Neapolis.
The Grand Rapids Post Office still serves the Southern and Central-West areas of the Township with a Zip Code of 43522. The Waterville Post Office serves the Central-East area with a Zip Code of 43566. The Whitehouse Post Office serves the Central and North area with a Zip Code of 43571. The Swanton Post Office serves the Northwest area with a Zip Code of 43558. The Liberty Center Post Office serves two small areas West and Southwest of Neapolis with a Zip Code of 43532.